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(a)

Certain revocable trusts-

(a)(1)

In general. Subject to the provisions of paragraph (a)(2) of this section, the general rule of § 1.672(f)-1 does not apply to any portion of a trust for a taxable year of the trust if the power to revest absolutely in the grantor title to such portion is exercisable solely by the grantor (or, in the event of the grantor's incapacity, by a guardian or other person who has unrestricted authority to exercise such power on the grantor's behalf) without the approval or consent of any other person. If the grantor can exercise such power only with the approval of a related or subordinate party who is subservient to the grantor, such power is treated as exercisable solely by the grantor. For the definition of grantor, see § 1.671-2(e). For the definition of related or subordinate party, see § 1.672(c)-1. For purposes of this paragraph (a), a related or subordinate party is subservient to the grantor unless the presumption in the last sentence of § 1.672(c)-1 is rebutted by a preponderance of the evidence. A trust (or portion of a trust) that fails to qualify for the exception provided by this paragraph (a) for a particular taxable year of the trust will be subject to the general rule of § 1.672(f)-1 for that taxable year and all subsequent taxable years of the trust.

(a)(2)

183-day rule. For purposes of paragraph (a)(1) of this section, the grantor is treated as having a power to revest for a taxable year of the trust only if the grantor has such power for a total of 183 or more days during the taxable year of the trust. If the first or last taxable year of the trust (including the year of the grantor's death) is less than 183 days, the grantor is treated as having a power to revest for purposes of paragraph (a)(1) of this section if the grantor has such power for each day of the first or last taxable year, as the case may be.

(a)(3)

Grandfather rule for certain revocable trusts in existence on September 19, 1995. Subject to the rules of paragraph (d) of this section (relating to separate accounting for gratuitous transfers to the trust after September 19, 1995), the general rule of § 1.672(f)-1 does not apply to any portion of a trust that was treated as owned by the grantor under section 676 on September 19, 1995, as long as the trust would continue to be so treated thereafter. However, the preceding sentence does not apply to any portion of the trust attributable to gratuitous transfers to the trust after September 19, 1995.

(a)(4)

Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this paragraph (a):

Example 1. Grantor is owner.

FP1, a foreign person, creates and funds a revocable trust, T, for the benefit of FP1's children, who are resident aliens. The trustee is a foreign bank, FB, that is owned and controlled by FP1 and FP2, who is FP1's brother. The power to revoke T and revest absolutely in FP1 title to the trust property is exercisable by FP1, but only with the approval or consent of FB. The trust instrument contains no standard that FB must apply in determining whether to approve or consent to the revocation of T. There are no facts that would suggest that FB is not subservient to FP1. Therefore, the exception in paragraph (a)(1) of this section is applicable.

Example 2. Death of grantor.

Assume the same facts as in Example 1, except that FP1 dies. After FP1's death, FP2 has the power to withdraw the assets of T, but only with the approval of FB. There are no facts that would suggest that FB is not subservient to FP2. However, the exception in paragraph (a)(1) of this section is no longer applicable, because FP2 is not a grantor of T within the meaning of § 1.671-2(e).

Example 3. Trustee is not related or subordinate party.

Assume the same facts as in Example 1, except that neither FP1 nor any member of FP1's family has any substantial ownership interest or other connection with FB. FP1 can remove and replace FB at any time for any reason. Although FP1 can replace FB with a related or subordinate party if FB refuses to approve or consent to FP1's decision to revest the trust property in himself, FB is not a related or subordinate party. Therefore, the exception in paragraph (a)(1) of this section is not applicable.

Example 4. Unrelated trustee will consent to revocation.

FP, a foreign person, creates and funds an irrevocable trust, T. The trustee is a foreign bank, FB, that is not a related or subordinate party within the meaning of § 1.672(c)-1. FB has the discretion to distribute trust income or corpus to beneficiaries of T, including FP. Even if FB would in fact distribute all the trust property to FP if requested to do so by FP, the exception in paragraph (a)(1) of this section is not applicable, because FP does not have the power to revoke T.

(b)

Certain trusts that can distribute only to the grantor or the spouse of the grantor-

(b)(1)

In general. The general rule of § 1.672(f)-1 does not apply to any trust (or portion of a trust) if at all times during the lifetime of the grantor the only amounts distributable (whether income or corpus) from such trust (or portion thereof) are amounts distributable to the grantor or the spouse of the grantor. For purposes of this paragraph (b), payments of amounts that are not gratuitous transfers (within the meaning of § 1.671-2(e)(2)) are not amounts distributable. For the definition of grantor, see § 1.671-2(e).

(b)(2)

Amounts distributable in discharge of legal obligations-

(b)(2)(i)

In general. A trust (or portion of a trust) does not fail to satisfy paragraph (b)(1) of this section solely because amounts are distributable from the trust (or portion thereof) in discharge of a legal obligation of the grantor or the spouse of the grantor. Subject to the provisions of paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section, an obligation is considered a legal obligation for purposes of this paragraph (b)(2)(i) if it is enforceable under the local law of the jurisdiction in which the grantor (or the spouse of the grantor) resides.

(b)(2)(ii)

Related parties-

(b)(2)(ii)(A)

In general. Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(B) of this section, an obligation to a person who is a related person for purposes of § 1.643(h)-1(e) (other than an individual who is legally separated from the grantor under a decree of divorce or of separate maintenance) is not a legal obligation for purposes of paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section unless it was contracted bona fide and for adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth (see § 20.2043-1 of this chapter).

(b)(2)(ii)(B)

Exceptions-

(b)(2)(ii)(B)(1)

Amounts distributable in support of certain individuals. Paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(A) of this section does not apply with respect to amounts that are distributable from the trust (or portion thereof) to support an individual who-

(b)(2)(ii)(B)(1)(i)

Would be treated as a dependent of the grantor or the spouse of the grantor under section 152(a)(1) through (9), without regard to the requirement that over half of the individual's support be received from the grantor or the spouse of the grantor; and

(b)(2)(ii)(B)(1)(ii)

Is either permanently and totally disabled (within the meaning of section 22(e)(3)), or less than 19 years old.

(b)(2)(ii)(B)(2)

Certain potential support obligations. The fact that amounts might become distributable from a trust (or portion of a trust) in discharge of a potential obligation under local law to support an individual other than an individual described in paragraph (b)(2)(ii)(B)(1) of this section is disregarded if such potential obligation is not reasonably expected to arise under the facts and circumstances.

(b)(2)(ii)(B)(3)

Reinsurance trusts. [Reserved]

(b)(3)

Grandfather rule for certain section 677 trusts in existence on September 19, 1995. Subject to the rules of paragraph (d) of this section (relating to separate accounting for gratuitous transfers to the trust after September 19, 1995), the general rule of § 1.672(f)-1 does not apply to any portion of a trust that was treated as owned by the grantor under section 677 (other than section 677(a)(3)) on September 19, 1995, as long as the trust would continue to be so treated thereafter. However, the preceding sentence does not apply to any portion of the trust attributable to gratuitous transfers to the trust after September 19, 1995.

(b)(4)

Examples. The following examples illustrate the rules of this paragraph (b):

Example 1. Amounts distributable only to grantor or grantor's spouse.

H and his wife, W, are both nonresident aliens. H is 70 years old, and W is 65. H and W have a 30-year-old child, C, a resident alien. There is no reasonable expectation that H or W will ever have an obligation under local law to support C or any other individual. H creates and funds an irrevocable trust, FT, using only his separate property. H is the grantor of FT within the meaning of § 1.671-2(e). Under the terms of FT, the only amounts distributable (whether income or corpus) from FT as long as either H or W is alive are amounts distributable to H or W. Upon the death of both H and W, C may receive distributions from FT. During H's lifetime, the exception in paragraph (b)(1) of this section is applicable.

Example 2. Effect of grantor's death.

Assume the same facts as in Example 1. H predeceases W. Assume that W would be treated as owning FT under section 678 if the grantor trust rules were applied without regard to section 672(f). The exception in paragraph (b)(1) of this section is no longer applicable, because W is not a grantor of FT within the meaning of § 1.671-2(e).

Example 3. Amounts temporarily distributable to person other than grantor or grantor's spouse.

Assume the same facts as in Example 1, except that C (age 30) is a law student at the time FT is created and the trust instrument provides that, as long as C is in law school, amounts may be distributed from FT to pay C's expenses. Thereafter, the only amounts distributable from FT as long as either H or W is alive will be amounts distributable to H or W. Even assuming there is an enforceable obligation under local law for H and W to support C while he is in school, distributions from FT in payment of C's expenses cannot qualify as distributions in discharge of a legal obligation under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, because C is neither permanently and totally disabled nor less than 19 years old. The exception in paragraph (b)(1) of this section is not applicable. After C graduates from law school, the exception in paragraph (b)(1) still will not be applicable, because amounts were distributable to C during the lifetime of H.

Example 4. Fixed investment trust.

FC, a foreign corporation, invests in a domestic fixed investment trust, DT, that is classified as a trust under § 301.7701-4(c)(1) of this chapter. Under the terms of DT, the only amounts that are distributable from FC's portion of DT are amounts distributable to FC. The exception in paragraph (b)(1) of this section is applicable to FC's portion of DT.

Example 5. Reinsurance trust.

A domestic insurance company, DI, reinsures a portion of its business with an unrelated foreign insurance company, FI. To satisfy state regulatory requirements, FI places the premiums in an irrevocable domestic trust, DT. The trust funds are held by a United States bank and may be used only to pay claims arising out of the reinsurance policies, which are legally enforceable under the local law of the jurisdiction in which FI resides. On the termination of DT, any assets remaining will revert to FI. Because the only amounts that are distributable from DT are distributable either to FI or in discharge of FI's legal obligations within the meaning of paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section, the exception in paragraph (b)(1) of this section is applicable.

Example 6. Trust that provides security for loan.

FC, a foreign corporation, borrows money from B, an unrelated bank, to finance the purchase of an airplane. FC creates a foreign trust, FT, to hold the airplane as security for the loan from B. The only amounts that are distributable from FT while the loan is outstanding are amounts distributable to B in the event that FC defaults on its loan from B. When FC repays the loan, the trust assets will revert to FC. The loan is a legal obligation of FC within the meaning of paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section, because it is enforceable under the local law of the country in which FC is incorporated. Paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section is not applicable, because B is not a related person for purposes of § 1.643(h)-1(e). The exception in paragraph (b)(1) of this section is applicable.

(c)

Compensatory trusts-

(c)(1)

In general. The general rule of § 1.672(f)-1 does not apply to any portion of-

(c)(1)(i)

A nonexempt employees' trust described in section 402(b), including a trust created on behalf of a self-employed individual;

(c)(1)(ii)

A trust, including a trust created on behalf of a self-employed individual, that would be a nonexempt employees' trust described in section 402(b) but for the fact that the trust's assets are not set aside from the claims of creditors of the actual or deemed transferor within the meaning of § 1.83-3(e); and

(c)(1)(iii)

Any additional category of trust that the Commissioner may designate in revenue procedures, notices, or other guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see § 601.601(d)(2) of this chapter).

(c)(2)

Exceptions. The Commissioner may, in revenue rulings, notices, or other guidance published in the Internal Revenue Bulletin (see § 601.601(d)(2) of this chapter), designate categories of compensatory trusts to which the general rule of paragraph (c)(1) of this section does not apply.

(d)

Separate accounting for gratuitous transfers to grandfathered trusts after September 19, 1995. If a trust that was treated as owned by the grantor under section 676 or 677 (other than section 677(a)(3)) on September 19, 1995, contains both amounts held in the trust on September 19, 1995, and amounts that were gratuitously transferred to the trust after September 19, 1995, paragraphs (a)(3) and (b)(3) of this section apply only if the amounts that were gratuitously transferred to the trust after September 19, 1995, are treated as a separate portion of the trust that is accounted for under the rules of § 1.671-3(a)(2). If the amounts that were gratuitously transferred to the trust after September 19, 1995 are not so accounted for, the general rule of § 1.672(f)-1 applies to the entire trust. If such amounts are so accounted for, and without regard to whether there is physical separation of the assets, the general rule of § 1.672(f)-1 does not apply to the portion of the trust that is attributable to amounts that were held in the trust on September 19, 1995.

(e)

Effective date. The rules of this section are generally applicable to taxable years of a trust beginning after August 10, 1999. The initial separate accounting required by paragraph (d) of this section must be prepared by the due date (including extensions) for the tax return of the trust for the first taxable year of the trust beginning after August 10, 1999.

[T.D. 8831, 64 FR 43276, Aug. 10, 1999, as amended by T.D. 8890, 65 FR 41334, July 5, 2000]